Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College is a multicampus, multipurpose system of higher education serving all of Louisiana. It exerts a major influence on the economic, social, and cultural life of the citizens of the state.
Louisiana State University is composed of eight institutions located throughout the state. LSU is a full university, providing broad areas of undergraduate and graduate instruction as well as extensive research programs. LSU Shreveport is a four-year undergraduate degree-granting campus which offers graduate study in selected fields. LSU Alexandria is a four-year campus, and LSU Eunice is a two-year campus. The LSU Medical Center, which is also part of LSU, has three campuses: two in New Orleans and one in Shreveport. The Center includes the Schools of Medicine, Dentistry, Nursing, and Allied Health Professions, as well as a graduate school. The Paul M. Hebert Law Center is located in Baton Rouge. The Pennington Biomedical Research Center, also located in Baton Rouge, promotes healthier lives through research and education in nutrition and preventive medicine. The LSU Agricultural Center, established in 1972 by the LSU Board of Supervisors as an autonomous entity of LSU, includes both the Agricultural Experiment Station and the Cooperative Extension Service as well as their statewide agricultural facilities. Administrative headquarters for the Center is located at Baton Rouge.
The governing body of LSU is a Board of Supervisors appointed by the Governor. The University is headed by a president. The chief administrative officer for each campus, with the exception of the flagship campus, is a chancellor.
Establishment of LSU Eunice
LSU Eunice is located just southwest of Eunice along Louisiana Highway 755 on a 196-acre tract of land originally belonging to the Arnold LeDoux family, who donated fifty acres for the establishment of the campus. The campus originally purchased an additional fifty acres and later acquired another 95.83 acres for future expansion. The campus is located in Acadia Parish, near the boundaries of Evangeline and St. Landry Parishes, in a rich and fertile section of Southwest Louisiana referred to as “the tri-parish area.”
The LSU Board of Supervisors was authorized by Revised Statute 17:1521 to establish Louisiana State University Eunice. Acting under this authority, the Board set in motion the chain of events leading to the establishment of a two-year commuter college at Eunice, with ground-breaking ceremonies in May, 1966.
Louisiana State University Eunice is accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Commission on Colleges to award associate degrees. Louisiana State University Eunice offers a wide range of courses and programs for the student wishing to pursue a four-year degree as well as for the student wishing to prepare for a career in two years or fewer of study.
Students pursuing a four-year degree can ordinarily complete at least the first two years of their programs at LSU Eunice. Courses taken by these students are usually the same in number, title, credit, and content as those offered on the Baton Rouge campus. Students pursuing the baccalaureate degree may major in such areas as business administration, education, humanities, social sciences, agriculture, engineering, natural sciences, and pre-professional preparation. LSU Eunice offers two Louisiana Transfer Degrees: the Associate of Science Louisiana Transfer and the Associate of Arts Louisiana Transfer.
For students seeking career preparation in only two years, LSU Eunice offers associate degree programs in computer information technology, criminal justice, care and development of young children, fire and emergency services, general studies, management, nursing, radiologic technology, and respiratory care. Although most of these programs are designed to prepare students for immediate employment, credits earned in them are usually acceptable for transfer if the student later decides to work toward a four-year degree.
The Honors Program offers academically well-prepared students an enriched selection of learning experiences to increase their depth and breadth of knowledge. Honors students have an opportunity to go beyond the material covered in regular class sections and advance their understanding of subjects that will make learning more rewarding and fulfilling. In addition to taking individual honors courses, students also have an opportunity to earn an associate degree with Honors distinction. The objectives of this two year program are to provide a vehicle for dedicated and talented students to work more closely with both faculty and with each other in an Honors “learning community” and to stimulate intellectual inquiry and foster critical thinking by allowing Honors students to delve more deeply into their cultural, historical, and scientific heritage.
The main requirements for new Honors Program students include having an ACT composite score of 25 or higher AND an ACT math sub-score of 22 or higher AND an ACT English sub-score of 18 or higher AND enrolling in an Honors seminar (1 credit hour) the first semester it is offered.
Current LSU Eunice students and other students with previous college work whose ACT scores meet the requirements for admission of new students shown above may also apply to the Honors Program. In addition, students with previous college courses may apply by submitting a complete transcript of all college work. Students must have at least a 3.5 grade-point average on at least 12 hours of college-level course work. In making admissions decisions, the Honors Council will also evaluate the quality of the courses. Additionally, the completed work must include at least one college algebra course equivalent to MATH 1015 or MATH 1021 and one English course equivalent to ENGL 1001 .
If students do not qualify for admission into the Honors Program, they may apply under the alternate admission criteria. Students applying under the alternate admission criteria will be required to write an essay based on a selection from various topics in a timed, supervised setting. Honors applicants must furnish two letters of recommendation from professors whose courses they have previously completed. Students must apply for admission prior to their third semester of college work at LSU Eunice to become part of the program. Full completion of the program may not be possible with late entry because of scheduling and availability of classes.
LSU Eunice offers scholarships specifically designated for a limited number of students accepted into the Honors Program. Students in the Honors Program are also eligible to receive other LSU Eunice scholarships. Any scholarships they receive at LSU Eunice are in addition to the state’s Tuition Opportunity Program for Students (TOPS) award. For more information on scholarships and a scholarship application, contact the LSU Eunice Office of Student Affairs and Enrollment Services at 337-550-1218.
For further information on the Honors Program, contact the Honors Program Director at 337-550-1328, or go to www.lsue.edu/honors/.
Pathways to Success
Louisiana State University Eunice offers the Pathways to Success program to help students prepare for their general education coursework.
- with an ACT composite score of 15 or below, OR
- with no ACT scores, OR
- with ACT scores over five years old at the time the semester begins, AND
- with less than 12 hours of transfer work from an accredited institution of higher education, OR
- declaring academic bankruptcy regardless of the number of credits earned at another institution
will be enrolled in the Pathways to Success program.
The Pathways to Success Program is mandatory for the above qualifying applicants and consists of writing skills (ENGL 0001 ), quantitative skills (MATH 0001 and MATH 0002 ), an orientation to university studies (UNIV 1005 ), critical reading (UNIV 0008 ), and approved electives in several different academic disciplines. Upon admission to the campus, students placed into the Pathways to Success program follow a prearranged set of classes as indicated below and are permitted to enroll in a maximum of 12 credit hours per semester.
Note: Courses in regular text are Pathways to Success core courses and must be completed in the sequence shown with a grade of C or better to progress to the next Pathways course. Courses in italics are general education courses (consult the current LSU Eunice Catalog for appropriate prerequisites).
Other program components include mandatory orientation to LSU Eunice and the Pathways program, class attendance, tutoring, and academic advising. Pathways students are not permitted to enroll in online, web assisted, or accelerated courses. Students may contact the Office of Developmental Education at 337-550-1433 for more information.
Students wishing to place out of the Pathways to Success program must take the ACT exam and obtain a composite of 16 or higher prior to their first semester of attendance.
Accelerated Online Degree - CALL Program
Center for Adult Learning in Louisiana (CALL)
LSU Eunice is excited to be a part of the CALL initiative, making it easier for adults to either begin or complete a post-secondary education through online degree programs, accelerated learning formats, and Prior Learning Assessment. Students participating in CALL at LSU Eunice can take a variety of general education and specific courses as part of the two-year degree of Associate of Science in Criminal Justice and Associate of Applied Science in Fire and Emergency Services. The courses and degrees will be delivered entirely online. For more information on CALL, students can visit the CALL website at www.louisianaonline.org or call 337-550-1390.
The myLSUE system provides students with online anytime-anywhere access to key university information and services. The system can be accessed via any Internet-connected computer or via many custom kiosks located throughout the campus. Using myLSUE, you can
- send and receive electronic mail;
- access library databases and indexes;
- access and verify personal and program information, including your address, telephone number, advisor’s name, major, academic status, and other information;
- view your current semester schedule;
- view your mid-term and final grades when they are posted;
- check for any outstanding “holds” that may prevent you from registering for classes or requesting a transcript;
- estimate your grade-point average based on the grades you expect to earn in the current semester and view the impact on your overall GPA;
- check your financial aid status;
- pay fees;
- view your academic transcript;
- view and print a fee bill showing your tuition and fees;
- register for classes which includes dropping and adding courses (if you want to drop all classes you must complete a Resignation Form in the Academic Affairs Office);
- change your password used to access myLSUE;
- view and interact with on-line course areas which are created for each course section taught at LSUE;
- access instructor-posted materials including lecture notes, syllabi, and interactive discussion areas; and
- check current local weather conditions.
myLSUE account information is mailed to new students after their applications for admission have been processed. Current students may get their password and User ID (student ID number) from the Office of Information Technology, Room 204, Classroom Community Education Building. Bring a picture ID.
Undergraduate Research Summer Institute
With support from the LSU Eunice Foundation, the Undergraduate Research Summer Institute (URSI) provides an opportunity for LSU Eunice faculty/student teams to carry out research projects which will enrich the educational experience of the talented undergraduate, while also providing LSU Eunice faculty with a professional development opportunity on a discipline-specific topic of interest to them. Additional funding is provided by SLEMCO.
The campus at Louisiana State University Eunice consists of a 196-acre tract of land, which extends along Louisiana Highway 755 southwest from downtown Eunice.
LIBRARY. The Arnold LeDoux Library provides a variety of informational, computer, and study resources for use by students, faculty, and the community. Those resources include a book collection of more than 66,000 volumes, periodicals, and media materials varied in coverage and format. There are also specialized collections in genealogy and Louisiana history. Developed to meet the needs of academic programs offered at LSU Eunice, the LeDoux Library collection covers many fields of interest.
The LeDoux Library contains a large collection of web-based databases, electronic books, journals, videos, and other electronic resources. In addition, users can access the online library catalog of LSU Eunice, as well as the online catalogs of other academic institutions in Louisiana. The electronic resources of the LeDoux Library can be readily accessed both on and off campus through the Library’s online catalog and information management system via the LSU Eunice web page, myLSUE, and myCourses.
Photocopiers, microfiche/microfilm readers, personal computers, a scanner, printers, a fax machine, and a Bengal Bux transaction station are also located in the library.
SCIENCE BUILDING. The administrative offices of the Chancellor, the Vice Chancellor for Business Affairs, and the Division of Sciences and Mathematics are housed in the Science Building. This building has specially designed rooms equipped for lectures, demonstrations, and laboratory work in the physical and biological sciences. In addition to regular classrooms and faculty and staff offices, the building contains a large amphitheater classroom and several research laboratories for use by both faculty and students.
GLADNEY L. MANUEL, SR. HALL houses the Office of Academic Affairs, the Registrar’s Office, the Office of Admissions, an office of the Division of Health Sciences and Business Technology, the Office of Developmental Education, and the Division of Liberal Arts.
Among the educational facilities available in this building are a model education classroom, computer laboratories, complete ceramics and design studios for art, and a tiered lecture-auditorium.
HEALTH TECHNOLOGY BUILDING. The Health Technology Building, which opened in Fall 1997, houses programs in nursing, radiologic technology, and respiratory care. The 43,700-square-foot facility includes classrooms, health care laboratories, a 250-seat auditorium, a computer laboratory, an audiovisual laboratory, and an office of the Division of Health Sciences and Business Technology.
ACADIAN CENTER. Fall 1971 marked the opening of the Acadian Center, which was expanded in 2002, almost doubling in size to more than 45,000 square feet. Although planned for multipurpose use, its versatility does not hamper the beauty of the building, the name of which reflects the rich Acadian heritage of the tri-parish area. Practicality and comfort are skillfully blended in the Acadian Center, which was designed to serve the students, faculty, and staff of LSU Eunice.
Members of the LSU Eunice community may enjoy fireside chats in the comfortable lounge area, obtain food service ranging from snacks to full meals, or spend time between classes enjoying one of the prime advantages of a small college: the friendly atmosphere founded on familiar faces and a wide circle of acquaintances. The center features a veranda where students can gather outside between classes.
The Acadian Center also houses the Office of Student Affairs and Enrollment Services, the LSU Eunice Book Store, the Office of Financial Aid, Campus Security, the Office of Student Activities, and the Student Government Association office. Banquet service for smaller groups is available in a special meeting room, while the main dining area, which normally seats approximately 400 people, may be used to accommodate up to 500 people at larger banquets. A conference area accommodates 300 people, either as one large room or subdivided into three rooms holding 100 people each.
HEALTH AND PHYSICAL EDUCATION BUILDING Included in the Health and Physical Education Building are a gymnasium with a standard-size basketball court plus cross-courts, a heated swimming pool, an indoor archery range that can also be used for golf driving, an inlaid putting surface, and a weight training and conditioning room. The facilities are used for instruction but are also available at scheduled times for recreational use by students, faculty, and community.
CLASSROOM COMMUNITY EDUCATION BUILDING The Classroom Community Education Building, which opened in Fall 2012, houses two large tiered classrooms, eight general classrooms, a computer lab, and several multi-purpose rooms such as a biology lab, fire science lab, culinary arts center, early childhood education center, and an exercising/dance studio. The 46,072 square foot facility includes the Office of Continuing Education, faculty offices, conference/seminar rooms, and the Office of Information Technology, which has a tiered seating training area.
BAPTIST COLLEGIATE MINISTRY opened in the 1976 spring semester. Its major purpose is the spiritual enrichment of students. This is accomplished through Bible studies, inspirational speakers, and a variety of special events with spiritual growth as their aim. The BCM also offers a place for students to play ping pong, listen to music, find a quiet corner in which to study, or just talk with friends between classes. The building has a comfortable recreation-conference area complete with fireplace, kitchen facilities, a director’s office, and a television room. Sponsored jointly by the Louisiana Baptist Convention and the Acadia Baptist Association, the BCM invites students of all faiths to share in its programs.
CATHOLIC STUDENT CENTER, which opened in the fall of 1979, offers the community a welcoming, cozy, and prayerful atmosphere. Hours are 7:30 a.m. to 7 p.m. Monday through Friday. Facilities include a student commons area, fireplace, kitchen, living quarters for residents, and campus minister’s office. Students may also visit the center’s Eucharistic Chapel. The center’s mission is to nurture students and prepare them truly to live their Catholic faith. Programs are offered to meet spiritual, personal, and social needs. The center hosts Awakening Retreats (fall and spring), Bible study, keynote speakers, concerts, free lunches and breakfasts, and study groups for various classes. The center also sponsors the Governor’s Program on Abstinence Club and Curriculum. Students are invited to participate in any of the center’s day, night, or weekend activities.
BENGAL VILLAGE is a privatized student apartment complex that offers on-campus housing for LSU Eunice students. Students who live in Bengal Village are members of a community, with an opportunity to participate in a variety of activities, to relax in the clubhouse, or to study together with other students. Additional information is provided below in the section on “Housing.”
In addition to this catalog, Louisiana State University Eunice publishes an Employee Handbook, a Student Handbook, a Registration Guide, and The Louisiana Review.
Since Louisiana State University Eunice is an integral part of the surrounding community, many cooperative programs have been developed, and faculty and staff members are available as speakers for area schools, clubs, and organizations.
LSU Eunice sponsors various cultural, civic, and informational programs such as visiting lecturers, artists and concert series, faculty lectures, and occasional book and art exhibits. Whenever possible, the public is invited to share in the educational, informational, and cultural activities of the campus.
LSU EUNICE DISTRICT RALLY ASSOCIATION. Louisiana State University Eunice serves as the host and testing center for literary, speech, and drama rallies held each spring for high school students five nearby parishes. LSU Eunice presents scholarships to the highest scoring student in each of the forty-four literary categories and three speech categories.
FOREIGN LANGUAGE FESTIVAL. Louisiana State University Eunice is also the site of an annual festival sponsored by the Tri-Parish Foreign Language Teachers’ Council. Participating high school students are given the opportunity to compete in several declamation categories. Certificates are awarded to the winners of the festival.
THE LOUISIANA REVIEW is an annual journal that publishes fiction, poetry, and art. First attention is given to Louisiana artists and Louisiana/Southern United States-themed pieces, but the journal gladly considers publishing quality work from any source. The journal is edited and published by the English Department of the Division of Liberal Arts.
THE LOUISIANA REVIEW READING SERIES is a monthly public reading organized and hosted by LSU Eunice’s art and literature journal, The Louisiana Review. Each month during the spring and fall semesters, a featured poet or fiction writer gives a public reading and offers to discuss the art and craft of writing. Past readers have included published authors, graduate students, and even LSU Eunice students.
REFRESHMENTS: SPRING POETRY is an annual celebration of poetry, springtime, and the outdoors in front of the Arnold LeDoux Library. Passersby join the readers and audience at noon on a weekday during National Poetry Month in April.
BENGAL-YOU! The Office of Continuing Education at LSU Eunice offers lifelong leisure learning programs for all ages, including summer youth activities and non-credit enrichment classes for adults. The Community Education Building also has a culinary demonstration facility used for cooking demonstrations and nutrition education.
LE CAFÉ CAJUN is dedicated to the preservation of Cajun language, culture, and cuisine in informal weekly linguistics sessions where participants tell stories from the past in Cajun French.
With the opening of Bengal Village in Fall 2002, LSU Eunice students now have an opportunity to live on campus in an apartment complex that is also a student community. Not only do students enjoy the convenience and comfort of living in modern, furnished apartments right on campus; they also are part of a student community with a chance to participate in a variety of social, educational, and recreational activities. The complex includes a swimming pool, outdoor barbecue pavilion, sports court, clubhouse with a plasma screen television, individual and group study spaces, and laundry facilities.
Bengal Village has on-site management staff, plus resident assistants who help to make sure that everything is going smoothly and who coordinate community activities. In all apartment units, each student has his or her own private bedroom. All apartments include kitchens and living areas. The complex is gated, and parking is separate from other parking areas on campus. The apartments are managed by a private company that specializes in student housing. Persons leasing apartments must be current LSU Eunice students or must have been accepted for admission as a new student. For more information, phone (337) 550-7800; e-mail email@example.com; on the Internet, go to www.campushousing.com/lsue; or write Bengal Village, 225 LSUE Campus Drive, Eunice, LA 70535.
All students must register motor vehicles for permits to park and operate them on campus. Students are held responsible for knowing and obeying campus traffic regulations. Copies of the regulations are available in the Office of Student Affairs and Enrollment Services.
Drug-Free Campus Policy
It is the policy of LSU Eunice to maintain a drug-free campus environment. Both the workforce and students shall remain drug-free and free of other substance abuse. The illegal use, possession, dispensation, manufacture, or sale of controlled substances and alcohol abuse by students while on campus is prohibited. Students who are convicted of violating the policy will be subject to disciplinary action within 30 days, including suspension or expulsion from the campus. Anyone found to have violated the policy is also subject to referral to civil authorities as appropriate. LSU Eunice will assist employees and students seeking rehabilitation by providing names, addresses, and telephone numbers of substance abuse facilities. Alcohol and drug awareness programs will also be presented. For the complete policy, including provisions affecting all employees, inquire in the Office of Student Affairs and Enrollment Services.
LSU Eunice is dedicated to preserving a peaceful and safe campus environment. Students, faculty, staff, and visitors are to report all crimes or suspicious activity to the Campus Security Office, the Vice Chancellor for Student Affairs and Enrollment Services, or any other administrative office.
The Campus Security Office is located in the Acadian Center, Room A-101. In order to report a fire, accident, or emergency using a phone in any campus office, dial 9-911 (for assistance from off campus agencies) and then report the emergency on campus by calling ext. 225 or 218 or by contacting any administrative office. After regular business hours, emergencies should be reported on campus by dialing 225 (if no answer, dial 580-0720). Guards assigned to patrol areas throughout the campus will respond promptly to any call and are in direct radio contact with the municipal fire department, emergency medical services, and police officials.
Campus Security consists of four full-time guards. Qualifications of guards meet the provisions of Louisiana law. Campus Security provides a limited range of services, including accident investigations, emergency services, and crime prevention services. Administrative responsibility for security service for the campus rests with the office of the Vice Chancellor for Student Affairs and Enrollment Services. Campus Security has jurisdiction on all University facilities, premises, and property. Campus Security reports the number and types of crimes monthly to the LSU Board of Supervisors. These figures are published annually, as a matter of public record, and may be obtained from the Campus Security Office or the Vice Chancellor for Student Affairs and Enrollment Services.
The LSU Eunice Board of Advisors
The LSU Eunice Board of Advisors, established in 1993, is a group of up to 75 community and business leaders from the LSU Eunice service region organized for the following purposes:
- to serve as an avenue of communication between the campus and its regional service area;
- to assist the campus in strengthening existing services and identifying new services to the benefit of the region;
- to assist in identifying and soliciting appropriate support from the broad and varied constituencies which are important to the continuing development of the campus;
- to cultivate good will, mutual support, and common understanding between the campus and a variety of external groups, individuals, and government agencies;
- to facilitate campus efforts to develop as an institution which meets the needs of all citizens of its regional service area; and,
- to foster and enhance the understanding among appropriate individuals and groups of the importance of the campus to the region.
The Board, as a whole, meets once a year. Much of the Board’s work is done through its five standing committees: Alumni Liaison, Public Relations, Foundation Liaison, Legislative and Governmental Relations, and Program Development. Members serve five-year, renewable terms and are not compensated for their service.
The LSUE Foundation
The LSUE Foundation is a non-profit, tax exempt organization formed in 1992 to support programs and activities designed to advance and promote LSU Eunice. The Foundation accepts contributions from individuals, business and industry, professional groups, and philanthropic organizations, under the direction of a 15-member Board of Directors.
The LSUE Foundation was established in recognition that state support does not provide all the necessary resources to fund quality educational programs at public higher education institutions. The Foundation seeks funding so that it may provide the margin of excellence for the educational and other programs of the institution.
Funds raised by the Foundation are used to enhance the services and operations of the campus to include general institutional development, community relations, faculty support, student support, and other activities.
Contributions to the LSUE Foundation are tax deductible. Contributors may designate that their donation be used for specific student scholarships, institutional development, or general foundation support. The Foundation publishes an annual report detailing receipts, expenditures, and activities. For additional information, contact the LSUE Foundation, P.O. Box 1551, Eunice, LA 70535, phone (337) 550-1257.
Friends of the Library
The Friends of the Library, a subdivision of the LSUE Foundation, is a group of individuals from the campus and the communities of LSU Eunice’s service area. Their support is offered in many ways: volunteer staffing for events and exhibits, loan of displays or equipment, and financial support to extend the resources and services of the Library beyond the limits of its state budget allocation. Memberships range from $10 for contributing members to $500 for lifetime members. Further information is available from the Office of the Library Director at (337) 550-1380.
Office of Alumni Affairs
The Office of Alumni Affairs is compiling a listing of all former LSU Eunice students so that they can be notified of alumni activities and developments on campus. Alumni who want to update their address information can contact the Office of Alumni Affairs toll free inside Louisiana, 1-888-FOR-LSUE, ext. 257, or locally, 337-550-1257.
LSU Eunice offers a variety of both credit and non-credit continuing education programs. Credit classes designed to meet the continuing education needs of students and community members are available. In addition, LSU Eunice sponsors non-credit short courses and enrichment programs. Details are available from the Office of Continuing Education at 337-550-1390.
The Community Education Building houses a distance learning laboratory connected with other university campuses in Louisiana through fully interactive compressed video technology. Classes can originate at any campus and be attended by students on any other campus. Students can communicate with one another and with the instructor using two-way audio and video. The distance learning laboratory enhances the educational opportunities available to LSU Eunice students and all other Louisiana students. In addition to sending and receiving freshman and sophomore courses, LSU Eunice also receives courses from other universities in such fields as education, horticulture, and other topics. For more information, contact the Office of Continuing Education at 337-550-1390.
Information regarding the following consumer information is available on the LSU Eunice Internet web site:
- General information about LSU Eunice
- Rights under the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act
- Webpage: FERPA
- Office of the Registrar: 337-550-1302
- Federal Stafford Loan Deferments for Peace Corps or Volunteer Service
- Office of the Registrar: 337-550-1302
- Available Financial Aid: a listing of all federal programs, how to apply, and the rights and responsibilities of the students, and the federal return of refunds policy
- Cost of attendance and tuition refunds
- Academic programs and the resignation process
- Completion/Graduation/Transfer-out Rate
- Campus Security Report
- Report on Athletic Program Participation Rates and Financial Support Data
- Webpage: Athletics
- Office of Athletics: 337-550-1287
- Questions regarding your LSUE identification card, username, or password
- Webpage: LSUE ID
- Office of Information Technology: 337-550-1307
- Information regarding your rights under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)
- Webpage: Student Services
- Office of Student Affairs and Enrollment Services: 337-550-1218.
- Required federal disclosure information can be found at www.lsue.edu/SACSCOC.
Persons needing to review this information before it becomes available on the LSU Eunice web site should contact the offices above for assistance.